Paris Agreement Article 9.5

11 Apr

We also thank the public for the 2018 Earth System Governance Conference, where an earlier version of this article was presented. Finally, we thank the Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, the University of Eastern LaFin and the African Centre for Technology Studies for their financial contribution to making this open access article available. Km supported by the Green Talents Fellowship of other funds of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for a research stay at the German Institute of Development/German Institute for Development Policy (DIE) in the early stages of this research. Although the Paris Agreement is the world`s largest diplomatic achievement to date to coordinate global government action against climate change, much remains to be done. The wide frame is now available. In the next five years prior to the agreement`s entry into force, the various modalities, rules and procedures required by the agreement will be developed, including, but not limited to: the characteristics of NPNs, adaptation measures, funding and transparency of measures and assistance. Open Access This article is licensed Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows use, release, customization, distribution and reproduction in any format, provided you grant appropriate recognition to the original author and source, providing a link to the Creative Commons license and indicating whether changes have been made. The images or other third-party material contained in this article are included in the article`s Creative Commons license, unless otherwise stated in a hardware credit. If the material is not included in the Creative Commons license of the article and your intention to use it is not authorized by law or if the authorized use exceeds, you must obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. A copy of this license is available in This article cannot indicate what an ideal “cascade” would look like to adapt to the subtle differentiation of the Paris Agreement, not least because the Paris Agreement does not make it mandatory to transmit information on adaptation in the NDCs. In addition, detailed bases for countries` adaptation efforts and needs would be needed. Although emerging economies have the highest percentage (14%) including measures, plans or strategies for all five sectors (see Figure 2), LDCs and the most appropriate SIDSs.

The validity of the results is underlined by similar cascades concerning the mention of vulnerable sectors and climate risks by the NDCs or the number of countries that incorporate adjustment cost data into their NCOs (see Pauw et al. 2016). Similarly, results in climate finance, technology transfer and capacity building appear to be cascading (see Figures 3-6). While the encoding of requests for support is clearly visible, no cascade of pledges of support can be observed. As in the case of adaptation, this article cannot dictate what an “ideal” cascade would look like in terms of consistency with the subtle differentiation of the Paris Agreement. On the one hand, the Paris Agreement contains no information justifying such requirements. On the other hand, it is outside the scope of this article to give an expectation based on the extent to which requests for support and contributions in the NCSs reflect either existing support flows or the needs of countries (cf.B. Betzold and Weiler (2017) and Klack et al.

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